Academic research paper sample that is writing

  • Academic writing into the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most regularly in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly follow the IMRAD model, which is short for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such as the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and an overview associated with the material that is subsequent.
  • The writer’s should be covered by the methods section assumptions, system model, simulation model, and gratification measures. For an study that is original when, where, and just how the study was conducted, what materials were used, and who had been within the study groups should all be included.
  • In describing the outcome, the writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the solution to the study question, and state whether or not the research hypothesis was proven or not proven.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcome, state why they matter, contextualize them in relation to research that is existing and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capacity to perceive a subject without being impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: an absolute opinion or position on a subject.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation associated with the materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to answer questions and identify patterns. Writing during these disciplines often takes the type of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    For instance, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research results to address or clarify a certain scientific development or question:

    “This study aims to identify degrees of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch regarding the Columbia River, which is a location notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples bought out a two-year period from various locations within the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high levels of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. When you look at the study, we examine the connection between salmon population together with persistence among these compounds.”

    Scientific papers require a great deal of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing could be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing within the sciences seeks to explain complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. Moreover it includes elements of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, along with other types of scientific writing must certanly be precise in order to provide results that may be tested and reproduced.

    Strive to use words that are simple sentences. Some students attempt to make their work sound more intellectual by utilizing obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In reality, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions that are still understandable to a audience that is lay. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted writing that is academic. Instead, write as simply and clearly that you can. Precision is a component that is key of.

    In the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is important. Don’t generalize—provide times that are exact measurements, quantities, and other relevant data whenever possible. Using precise, straightforward language to describe your work can also be vital. This isn’t the time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: writing about the sciences does give you website to write a paper a n’t pass to write sloppily.


    The sciences strive for objectivity at each stage, from the procedures that are experimental the language utilized in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; because of this, it offers an character that is argumentative. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis must certanly be testable, along with your results should be reproducible.

    The importance of objectivity into the sciences limits writers’ ability to use persuasive rhetoric. However, it is still required to make a case that is strong the value, relevance, and applicability of one’s research. Argumentative writing comes with a accepted place in scientific papers, but its role is bound. You may use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it whenever you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition in one topic to the next. Transitions are well worth mastering—they are the glue that holds your thinking together. Never assume that the reader will guess the relationships correctly between different subtopics; it is your responsibility to explain these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Keepin constantly your chosen model in your mind even though you write often helps make sure your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as for example bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account fully for their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These may include bias that is cognitive thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some people in the intended sample more readily than the others).

    The body of a paper that is scientific consist of listed here sections: introduction (which may include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each component of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model is the conventional approach that is structural academic writing within the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This can be included as part of the introduction, or it might stand as its own section.
    • The methods section should explain the manner in which you collected and evaluated important computer data.
    • In case your project conducts an experiment or an original data analysis, you should include an independent section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any new findings.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
    • literature review: A synthesis regarding the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which include significant findings in addition to theoretical and methodological contributions to a topic that is particular.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that rely on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or lack of discovery) that comes from the method that is scientific of.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that creates a far more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the body regarding the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This process is called IMRAD for short.

    These sections are often separate, although sometimes the total answers are combined with methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, as they are still learning the conventions of writing in their discipline. Most scientific journals prefer the IMRAD format, or variations from it, and also suggest that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    You will need to stay true every single section’s stated purpose. You can cite relevant sources when you look at the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the lengthy discussion of the sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcome section should describe your results without discussing their significance, while the discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any findings that are new. Think of each section as a course served at a fancy dinner—don’t pour the soup in to the salad or add leftover scraps through the entree to your dessert!